Austrian Monarchy: Rulers of the Alps

The history of Austria can be somewhat confusing if you try to catch up with the names of rapidly changing monarchs and rulers. The Habsburg family, rulers over the country for almost 700 years, was full of Franzes, Ferdinands and Karls, split into a Spanish and an Austrian line, was re-united and had a Franz II that later turned into a Franz I.

Emperor Franz II of the Holy Roman Empire quit his job and became Franz I of Austria

Having a list of all the monarchs of Austria from the early Babenberg days until the revolution in 1919, the following lines might help you to keep an overview. For more information, please read the articles on the history of Austria or at least the very concise "Short History of Austria in less than 1000 words".

Please note that I tried to stick with the German names - they are often spelled differently in English literature. For example, "Friedrich" turns into "Frederick". The line of "Habsburg-Lothringen" is also spelled as "Hapsburg-Lorraine" in English.

The House of Babenberg (976-1246)

Leopold I: 976-994
Heinrich I: 994-1018
Adalbert: 1018-1055
Ernst: 1055-1075
Leopold II: 1075-1095
Leopold III (the Saint): 1095-1136
Leopold IV: 1136-1141
Duke Heinrich II "Jasomirgott": 1141-1177
Leopold V "the Virtuous": 1177-1194
Friedrich I: 1195-1198
Leopold VI "the Glorious": 1198-1230
Friedrich II "the Quarrelsome": 1230-1246

The Interregnum period (1246-1273)

King Ottokar II of Bohemia: 1252-1278

The Early Habsburgs (1273-1440)

Rudolf I: 1273-1291 (note the overlap)
Albrecht I: 1291-1308
Friedrich I "the Handsome": 1308-1330
Albrecht II: 1335-1358
Rudolf IV "the Magnanimous": 1358-1365
Albrecht III: 1365-1395
Albrecht IV: 1395-1404
Albrecht V (Emperor Albrecht II): 1411-1439

The Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg

Friedrich III: 1440-1493
Maximilian I: 1493-1519
Karl V: 1519-1521
Ferdinand I: 1521-1564
Maximilian II: 1564-1576
Rudolf II: 1576-1612
Matthias: 1612-1619
Ferdinand II: 1619-1637
Ferdinand III: 1637-1657
Leopold I: 1658-1705
Joseph I: 1705-1711
Karl VI: 1711-1740
Maria Theresia: 1740-1780 (starts line of "Habsburg-Lothringen")
Joseph II: 1765-1790
Leopold II: 1790-1792
Franz II: 1792-1806 (resigned and started his own Empire)

Habsburg Emperors of Austria,
from 1867 Austria-Hungary (1806-1918)

Franz I of Austria (same guy as Franz II of the Holy Roman Empire): 1806-1835
Ferdinand I: 1835-1848
Franz Josef I: 1848-1916
Karl I: 1916-1918

Imperial Sightseeing

Schönbrunn Palace - Belvedere Palace - Hofburg - Castle & Parks of Laxenburg - Hofmobiliendepot - Ambras Castle

Back to "background"

Further Reading

A list of Salzburg's Prince Archbishops

Austrian History in less than 1000 words

A list of Austrian presidents and chancellors

See Imperial Pomp as a Tourist in Vienna